Christie M. Sayes, PhD

Principal Investigator

Toxicology & Environmental Health

Christie M. Sayes, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Environmental Science

Department of Environmental Science
Baylor University
One Bear Place #97266
Waco, TX 76798-7266

Office: BSB A.434
Phone: (254) 710-3469
FAX: (254) 710-3409

Dr. Christie M. Sayes is an Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Toxicology at Baylor University. She is a subject matter expert in nanomaterial-related toxicology and exposure. Her activities include working with partners and collaborators in designing experiments, directing studies, and training students/staff.  She possesses a working knowledge of laboratory science and U.S. regulatory climates. Routine activities include data collection, analyses, and interpretation as well as documentation and reporting. Data is always related back to the published literature.  Sayes functions as point of contact for study control.   

Sayes was formerly environmental health program Director at RTI International (Durham, NC) and an Assistant Professor of Toxicology at Texas A&M University (College Station, TX); she maintains her adjunct faculty appointment at Texas A&M as well as appointments with the University of North Carolina and Baylor University. She has more than 15 years of experience in the fields of nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and nanomedicine; has authored numerous publications, including original research, invited reviews, and book chapters. She is a member of the Society of Toxicology, American Chemical Society, and has served on the Scientific Advisory Board for the EPA’s FIFRA Program. She also serves as Associate Editor for the Royal Society of Chemistry’s Toxicology Research and on the Editorial Board of the journals Toxicological Sciences, Nanotoxicology, and Toxicology Letters. Sayes is the Past-President of North Carolina Chapter Society of Toxicology and the current Vice-President of Lone State (Texas) Chapter Society of Toxicology.  In addition, Sayes serves on the local organizing committee and International Advisory Board for the 8th International Nanotoxicology Conference. 

She has proven abilities in providing technical guidance and leadership to students, technicians, and colleagues; a high aptitude for development of complex particle toxicological and biocompatibility basic and applied research projects in cell culture based and animal based models; substantial training in nanomaterial research techniques & instruments; significant experience working independently & collaborating across disciplines and organizations; excellent communication and interpersonal skills with colleagues in science and engineering, senior management, and new and existing clients and other funding sources.

Christie received her PhD in Chemistry in 2004 from Rice University.  Her dissertation focused on the nano-bio interface. In 2005, she joined The DuPont Company as Visiting Scientist and aided in the drafting of the DuPont-Environmental Defense Nano Risk Framework.


  • Society of Toxicology (SOT)

  • American Chemical Society (ACS)

  • Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

  • Texas Society for Microscopy (TSM)

  • Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI)

  • Society of Risk Analysis (SRA)


  • Awardee, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Summer Faculty Fellowship Program

  • Recipient, Baylor University “Rising Star” 

  • Honorary Member, Society of Risk Analysis

  • Thomson Reuters World's Most Influential Scientific Minds

  • Outstanding Publication, RTI International

  • Thomson Reuters Highly Cited Researcher

  • Best Publication in Nanotoxicology Award, Society of Toxicology 


  • Nanotoxicology: Convergence of Natural, Formal, Social, and Applied Sciences. (under development). Part of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences Series, Springer Science, New York, NY.



  • Salazar-Medina AJVelazquez-Contreras EFSugich-Miranda RSantacruz H, Navarro RE, Rocha-Alonzo F, Islas-Osuna MA, Chen PL, Christian SGB, Romoser AA, Dindot SV, Sayes CM, Sotelo-Mundo RR*, Criscitiello MF*. (2019). “Immune response of human cultured cells towards macrocyclic Fe2PO and Fe2PC biomimetic cyclophane complexes”. PeerJ — the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences (accepted). 

  • Stewart MMulenos MRSteele LRSayes CM*. (2018). “Differences Among Unique Nanoparticle Protein Corona Constructs:
A Case Study Using Data Analytics and Multi-Variant Visualization to Describe Physicochemical Characteristics”. Applied Sciences 8:2669-2684. 

  • McMinn BDuval A and Sayes CM*. (2018). "An Adverse Outcome Pathway Linking Organohalogen Exposure to Mitochondrial Disease". Journal of Toxicology. (accepted).

  • Sharma VK*, Guo B, Pillai S, Parson J, Wang C, Yan B, Sayes CM*. (2018). "Interactions between silver nanoparticles and other metal nanoparticles under environmentally relevant conditions: A review". Science of the Total Environment 653:1042-1051. 

  • Fazarro D* and Sayes CM*. (2018). "Students’ Perception of Learning Experience of Risk Management for Nano-scaled Materials". Journal of Technology, Management, and Applied Engineering 34(3):2-11. 

  • Sayes CM* and Singal M. (2018). “Optimizing a Test Bed System to Assess Human Respiratory Safety After Exposure to Chemical and Particle Aerosolization”. Applied In Vitro Toxicology 4(2): 193. 

  • Lujan H, Criscitiello MF, Hering M, and Sayes CM*. (2018). “Refining In Vitro Toxicity Models: Comparing Baseline Characteristics of Lung Cell-Types”. Toxicological Sciences, kfz001.

  • Lujan H and Sayes CM*. (2017). “Cytotoxicological Pathways Induced after Nanoparticle Exposure: Studies of the ‘Nano-Bio’ Interface”. Toxicology Research 6:580-594.  

  • Benton EN and Sayes CM*. (2017). “Environmental Factors Contribute to the Onset of Food Allergies”. Journal of Environmental Science and Public Health 1(1):27-43. 

  • Sayes CM* and Lujan H. (2017). “Characterizing the Nano-Bio Interface Using Microscopic Techniques: Imaging the Cell System Is Just as Important as Imaging the Nanoparticle System”.   Current Protocols in Chemical Biology 9(3):213-231. 

  • Sharma VK, Yang X, Cizmas L, McDonald TJ, Luque R, Sayes CM, Yuan B, Dionysiou DD. (2017). “Impact of metal ions, metal oxides, and nanoparticles on the formation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination.” Chemical Engineering Journal 317:777-792.

  • Sayes CM*Aquino GV, and Hickey AJ. (2017). "Nanomaterial Drug Products: Manufacturing and Analytical Perspectives." AAPS Journal 19(1):18-25. 

  • Adegboyega NF, Sharma VK*, Cizmas L, and Sayes CM. (2016). “UV light induces Ag nanoparticle formation: roles of natural organic matter, iron, and oxygen”. Environmental Chemistry Letters 14.3 (2016): 353-357.

  • Clippinger AJ*, Ahluwalia A, Allen D, Bonner JC, Casey W, Castranova V, David RM, Halappanavar S, Hotchkiss JA, Jarabek AM, Maier M, Polk W, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Sayes CM, Sayre P, Sharma M, Stone V. (2016). “Expert consensus on an in vitro approach to assess pulmonary fibrogenic potential of aerosolized nanomaterials”. Archives of Toxicology 90(7):1769–1783. 

  • Gueldner JSayes CM, Abel E*, Bruce E*. (2016). “Emerging Associations of the ALDH2*2 Polymorphism with Disease Susceptibility”. Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 7:2. 

  • Polk WW, Sharma M, Sayes CM, Hotchkiss JA, Clippinger AJ*. (2016). “Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 13(1):20. 

  • Bruce ED* and Sayes CM*. (2016). “Toxicological Outcomes and Pharmacological Needs in Chronic Wound Healing”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(1):15. 

  • Sayes CM*Sooresh A, Meissner KE. (2015). “Physicochemical Characteristics of Two Prototypical Home-Use Consumer Products Containing Engineered Nanomaterials”. Journal of Environmental Analytical Toxicology 5(6):1-9. 

  • Zeidan E, Kepley C, Sayes CM, Sandros MG. (2015). “Surface plasmon resonance: a label-free tool for cellular analysis”. Nanomedicine 10(11):1833-18465. 

  • Geraci C, Heidel D, Sayes CM, Hodson L*, Schulte P, Eastlake A, Brenner S. (2015). “Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes”. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 17(9):366. 

  • Zhang FDurham PSayes CM, Lau BLT, and Bruce ED*. (2015). “Particle uptake efficiency is significantly affected by type of capping agent and cell line”. Journal of Applied Toxicology35(10):1114-21. 

  • Bartlett JA, Brewster M, Brown P, Cabral-Lilly D, Cruz CN*, David R, Eickhoff WM, Haubenreisser S, Jacobs A, Malinoski F, Morefield E, Nalubola R, Prud’homme R, Sadrieh N, Sayes CM, Shahbazian H, Subbarao N, Tamarkin L, Tyner K, Uppoor R, Whittaker-Caulk M, Zamboni W. (2015). “Summary report of PQRI Workshop on Nanomaterial Drug Products: Current Experience and Management of Potential Risks”. AAPS Journal. 17(1):44-64. 

  • Powers CM*, Grieger KD, Beaudrie C, Hendren CO, Davis JM, Wang A, Sayes CM, MacDonnell M, Gift JS. (2015). “Data dialogues: critical connections for designing and implementing future nanomaterial research”. Environment Systems and Decisions 35(1):76-87. 

  • Sayes CM*, Staats H, Hickey AJ*. (2014). “Scale of Health: Indices of Safety and Efficacy in the Evolving Environment of Large Biological Datasets”. Pharmaceutical Research 31(9):2256-65.

  • Sooresh A, Pine M, Sayes CM*. (2014). “Effects of a novel pesticide-particle conjugate on viability and reactive oxygen species generation in neuronal (PC12) cells”. Drug & Chemical Toxicology 38(2):205-211. 

  • Taiyeb AM*, Ridha MT, Sayes CM, Dees WL, Kraemer DC. (2014). “Cilostazol administered to female mice induces ovulation of immature oocytes: A contraceptive animal model”. Life Sciences 96 (1-2):46-52. 

  • Sayes CM*. (2014). “The relationships among structure, activity, and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles”, KONA Powder and Particle Journal 31:10. 

  • Romoser AA, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM*. (2014). “Engineered nanoparticles induce DNA damage in primary human skin cells, even at low doses”, Nano LIFE 4(1):1-13. 

  • Taiyeb AM, Dees WL, Ridha-Albarzanchi MT, Sayes CM, Kraemer DC*. (2013). “In vitro effects of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitor, on mouse oocyte maturation and morphology”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 41(2):147-153. 

  • Dellinger AZhou ZConnor J, Madhankumar AB, Pamujula S, Sayes CM, Kepley CL*. (2013). “Application of fullerenes in nanomedicine: an update”, Nanomedicine 8(7):1191–1208. 

  • Sayes CM*Smith PA, Ivanov IV. (2013). "A Framework for Grouping Nanoparticles Based on Their Measurable Characteristics", International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013(8):45-56. 

  • Albarzanchi AMTSayes CM, Fajt V, Dees WL, Kraemer DC. (2013). “Cilostazol blocks pregnancy in naturally cycling mice”. Contraception 87(4):443-8. 

  • Berg JMRomoser AAFigueroa DE, West CS, and Sayes CM*. (2013). “Comparative cytological responses of lung epithelial and pleural mesothelial cells following in vitro exposure to nanoscale SiO2.” Toxicology In Vitro, 27(1):24-33. 

  • Sooresh AZeng ZChandrasekharan J, Pillai SD, and Sayes CM*. (2012). A Physiologically Relevant Approach to Characterize the Microbial Response to Colloidal Particles in Food Matrices within a Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract.  Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50:2971-2977. 

  • Romoser AAFigueroa DESooresh A, Chen PL, Scribner K, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM*. (2012). “Distinct immunomodulatory effects of a panel of nanomaterials in human dermal fibroblasts.” Toxicology Letters, 210: 293–301. 

  • Hicks JB*, McCarthy SA, Mezei G, and Sayes CM. (2011). “PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 56(2):182-193. 

  • Sooresh AKwon HS, Taylor R, Pietrantonio P, Pine M, Sayes CM*. (2011) “Surface functionalization of silver nanoparticles for novel pesticide delivery.” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 3: 3779–3787. 

  • Romoser AARitter DMajitha R, Meissner K, McShane M, Sayes CM*. (2011) "Mitigation of Quantum Dot Cytotoxicity by Microencapsulation." PLoS ONE, 6(7):e22079. 

  • Romoser AA, Chen PL, Berg JM, Seabury C, Ivanov I, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM*. (2011) “Quantum dots trigger modulation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in human skin cells”. Molecular Immunology, 48:1349– 1359. 

  • Berg JMHo SHwang WZebda RCummins K, Soriaga M, Taylor R, Guo B, Sayes CM*. (2010) “Internalization of Carbon Black and Maghemite Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Mixtures Leads to Oxidant Production”. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 23(12):1874–1882. 

  • Sayes CM* and Ivanov I; (2010) “Comparative Study of Predictive Computational Models for Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity”. Risk Analysis, 30(11):1723. 

  • Warheit DB*, Sayes CM, Frame SR, Reed KL; (2010) “Pulmonary exposures to Sepiolite nanoclay particulates in rats: Resolution following multinucelate giant cell formation and lack of extrapulmonary systemic effects”. Toxicology Letters, 192: 286–293. 

  • Sayes CM, Reed KL, Glover KP, Swain KA, Ostraat ML, Donner EA, Warheit DB*; (2009) “Changing the dose metric for inhalation toxicity studies: Short-term study in rats with engineered aerosolized amorphous silica nanoparticles.” Inhalation Toxicology, 22(4): 348–354. 

  • Sayes CM* and Warheit DB; (2009) “Characterization of nanomaterials for toxicity assessment”. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 1(6):660-670. 

  • Berg JMRomoser ABanerjee NZebda RSayes CM*; (2009) “The relationship between pH and Zeta potential of ~30 nm metal oxide nanoparticle suspensions relevant to in vitro toxicological evaluations”. Nanotoxicology, 3(4): 276–283. 

  • Warheit DB*, Sayes CM, Reed KL; (2009) "Nanoscale and fine zinc oxide particles: Can in vitro assays accurately forecast lung hazards following inhalation exposures?" Environmental Science & Technology, 43(20):7939-7945. 

  • Warheit DB, Reed KL, and Sayes CM*; (2009) “A role for surface reactivity in TiO2 and quartz-related nanoparticle pulmonary toxicity”. Nanotoxicology 3(03):181-187. 

  • Warheit DB, Reed KL, Sayes CM*. (2009). “A role for nanoparticle surface reactivity in facilitating pulmonary toxicity and development of a base set of hazard assays as a component of nanoparticle risk management.” Inhalation Toxicology. 21(1):61-7. 

  • Guo B*, Zebda RDrake SJSayes CM*; (2009) “Synergistic effect of co-exposure to carbon black and Fe2O3 nanoparticles on oxidative stress in cultured lung epithelial cells”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 6:4. 

  • Warheit DB*, Sayes CM, Reed KL, Swain KA; (2008) “Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: Environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks”. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 120:35-42. 

  • Sayes CM, Reed KL, Abrams L, Subramoney S, Warheit DB*; (2008) “Validating in vitro nanoparticle toxicity measurements”.  Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11:421-431. 

  • Sayes CM, Marchione A, Reed KL, Warheit DB*; (2007) “Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessments of C60 water suspensions in rats: Few differences in fullerene toxicity in vivo in contrast to in vitro profiles”.  Nano Letters 7(8):2399-2406. 

  • Sayes CM and Warheit DB*; (2008) “An in vitro investigation of the differential cytotoxic responses of human and rat lung epithelial cell lines using TiO2 nanoparticles”. International Journal of Nanotechnology 5(1):15-29. 

  • Yu WW, Chang EFalkner JC, Zhang J, Al-Somali AMSayes CMJohns J, Drezek R, Colvin V*; (2007) “Forming biocompatible and nonaggregated nanocrystals in water using amphiphilic polymers”.  Journal of the American Chemical Society 129(10):2871-2879. 

  • Warheit DB*, Hoke R, Finlay C, Donner M, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Development of a base set of toxicity tests as a component of a nanoparticle risk management framework”.  Toxicology Letters 171:99–110. 

  • Sayes CM, Reed KL, Warheit DB*; (2007) “Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: Comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles”. Toxicological Sciences97(1):163–180.

  • Warheit DB*, Webb TR, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with three forms of ultrafine-TiO2 particles: Evidence for differential responses”.  Toxicology 230(1):90-104. 

  • Warheit DB*, Webb TR, Colvin VL, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Pulmonary bioassay studies with nanoscale and fine-quartz particles in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size but on surface characteristics”. Toxicological Sciences 95(1):270–280. 

  • Yu WW, Chang ESayes CM, Drezek R, Colvin VL*; (2006) “Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer”.  Nanotechnology17(17):4483-4487. 

  • Sayes CMWahi RKurian P, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, Warheit DB, Colvin VL*; (2006) “Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: A cytotoxic and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells”.  Toxicological Sciences 92(1):174-185. 

  • Warheit DB*, Webb TR, Sayes CM, Colvin VL, Reed KL; (2006) “Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area”.  Toxicological Sciences 91(1):227-236. 

  • Sayes CMLiang FHudson JLMendez J, Guo WH, Beach JMMoore VCDoyle CD, West JL, Billups WE, Ausman KD, Colvin VL*; (2006) “Functionalization density dependence of SWNT cytotoxicity in vitro”.  Toxicology Letters 161(2):135-142. 

  • Lyon DYFortner JDSayes CM, Colvin VL, Hughes JB*; (2005) “Bacterial cell association and antimicrobial activity of a C60 water suspension”.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry24(11):2757-2762. 

  • Sayes CMGobin AMMendez J, West JL, Colvin VL*; (2005) “Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation”.  Biomaterials 26(36):7587-7595. 

  • Chen M, Falkner J, Guo WH, Zhang JY, Sayes CM, Colvin VL*; (2005). “Synthesis and self-organization of soluble monodisperse palladium nanoclusters”.  Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 287(1): 146-151.

  • Fortner JDLyon DSayes CM, Guo WH, Tao YJ, Ausman KD, Hughes JB, Colvin VL*; (2005) “C60 in water: nanocrystal formation and microbial response”.  Environmental Science and Technology 39(11):4307. 

  • Sayes CMFortner JD, Guo W, Lyon DYBoyd AM, Ausman KD, Tao YJ, Sitharaman B, Wilson LJ, Hughes JB, West JL, Colvin VL*; (2004) “The differential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fullerenes”.  (2004). Nano Letters 4(10):1881. 

  • Hammer RP*, Owens CV, Hwang SH, Sayes CM, Soper SA; (2002) “Asymmetrical, water-soluble phthalocyanine dyes for covalent labeling of oligonucleotides”.  Bioconjugate Chemistry13(6):1244-1252. 

  • Boyd JEBriskman ASayes CM, Mittleman D, Colvin V*; (2002) “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles”.  Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106(24):6346-6353. 

  • Billodeaux DROwens CVSayes CM, Soper SA*, Fronczek FR; (1999) “Pseudosymmetry with Z '=4 in 1,3-propanesultone at 100 K”.  Acta Crystallographica Section C - Crystal Structure Communications 55:2126-2129.