Christie M. Sayes, Ph.D.
Toxicology & Environmental Health
Dr. Christie M. Sayes is an Associate Professor of Environmental Science and Toxicology at Baylor University. She is a subject matter expert in nanomaterial-related toxicology and exposure. Her activities include working with partners, collaborators, and clients in designing & directing studies and training & advising facility staff. She possesses a working knowledge of laboratory science and U.S. regulatory climates. Routine activities include data collection, analyses, and interpretation as well as results documentation and reporting. Data is always related back to the published literature. Sayes functions as point of contact for study control.
Sayes was formerly a program Director of the environmental health program at RTI International and an Assistant Professor of toxicology at Texas A&M University; she maintains her adjunct faculty appointment at Texas A&M as well as appointments within the University of North Carolina System and Baylor University. She has more than a decade of experience in the fields of nanotechnology and nanotoxicology and has authored numerous publications, including original research, invited reviews, and book chapters. She is a member of the Society of Toxicology and recently served on the Scientific Advisory Board for the EPA’s FIFRA Program. She also serves as Associate Editor for RSC Toxicology Research and on the Editorial Board of the journals Toxicological Sciences, Nanotoxicology, and Toxicology Letters. Sayes is the Past-President of North Carolina Chapter Society of Toxicology, current Secretary of Lone State Chapter Society of Toxicology. In addition, Sayes serves on the local organizing committee and International Advisory Board for the 8th International Nanotoxicology Conference.
She has proven abilities in providing technical guidance and leadership to students, technicians, and colleagues; a high aptitude for development of complex particle toxicological and biocompatibility basic and applied research projects in cell culture based and animal based models; substantial training in nanomaterial research techniques & instruments; significant experience working independently & collaborating across disciplines and organizations; excellent communication and interpersonal skills with colleagues in science and engineering, senior management, and new and existing clients and other funding sources.
Christie received her PhD in Chemistry in 2005 from Rice University. Her dissertation focused on the nano-bio interface. In 2005, she joined The DuPont Company as Visiting Scientist and aided in the drafting of the DuPont-Environmental Defense Nano Risk Framework.
Society of Toxicology
Royal Society of Chemistry
Honorary Member, Society of Risk Analysis
Nanotoxicology: Convergence of Natural, Formal, Social, and Applied Sciences. (under development). Part of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences Series, Springer Science, New York, NY.
Bruce ED, Sayes C, Woodmansee JW, inventors; Baylor University, assignee. Administration of a poly-oxygenated metal hydroxide to reduce the proliferation of carcinoma cells. United States patent US 9,682,103. 2017 Jun 20.
Bruce ED, Sayes C, Woodmansee JW, inventors; Baylor University, assignee. Intravenous administration of an oxygen-enabled fluid. United States patent US 9,649,335. 2017 May 16.
PEER-REVIEWED RESEARCH PAPERS
Lujan H and Sayes CM. (2017). “Cytotoxicological Pathways Induced after Nanoparticle Exposure: Studies of the ‘Nano-Bio’ Interface”. Toxicology Research, DOI: 10.1039/C7TX00119C
Sharma VK, Yang X, Cizmas L, McDonald TJ, Luque R, Sayes CM, Yuan B, Dionysiou DD. (2017 Feb 21). “Impact of metal ions, metal oxides, and nanoparticles on the formation of disinfection byproducts during chlorination.” Chemical Engineering Journal.
Sayes CM and Lujan H. (2017). “Characterizing the Nano-Bio Interface Using Microscopic Techniques: Imaging The Cell System Is Just As Important As Imaging The Nanoparticle System”. Current Protocols in in Chemical Biology.
Sayes CM, Aquino GV, and Hickey AJ. (2017). "Nanomaterial Drug Products: Manufacturing and Analytical Perspectives." The AAPS journal 2017:1-8.
Adegboyega NF, Sharma VK, Cizmas L, and Sayes CM. (2016). “UV light induces Ag nanoparticle formation: roles of natural organic matter, iron, and oxygen”. Environmental Chemistry Letters 14.3 (2016): 353-357.
Clippinger AJ, Ahluwalia A, Allen D, Bonner JC, Casey W, Castranova V, David RM, Halappanavar S, Hotchkiss JA, Jarabek AM, Maier M, Polk W, Rothen-Rutishauser B, Sayes CM, Sayre P, Sharma M, Stone V. (2016). “Expert consensus on an in vitro approach to assess pulmonary fibrogenic potential of aerosolized nanomaterials”. Archives of Toxicology 90(7):769–1783.
Gueldner J, Sayes CM, Bruce E. (2016). “Understanding the ALDH2*2 Mutation in the Asian Population”. Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology, 7:2.
Polk WW, Sharma M, Sayes CM, Hotchkiss JA, Clippinger AJ. (2016). “Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 13(20):1-12.
Bruce ED and Sayes CM. (2016). “Toxicological Outcomes and Pharmacological Needs in Chronic Wound Healing”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 1(1):15.
Sayes CM, Sooresh A, Meissner KE. (2015). “Physicochemical Characteristics of Two Prototypical Home-Use Consumer Products Containing Engineered Nanomaterials”. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5(6):1-9.
Zeidan E, Kepley C, Sayes CM, Sandros MG. (2015). “Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR): A Label-Free Tool for Nanomedicinal Applications”. Nanomedicine, 10(11):1833-18465.
Geraci C, Heidel D, Sayes CM, Hodson L, Schulte P, Eastlake A, Brenner S. (2015). “Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes”. J Nanoparticle Res 17(9):366.
Zhang F, Durham P, Sayes CM, Lau BLT, and Bruce ED. (2015). “Particle uptake efficiency is significantly affected by type of capping agent and cell line”. Journal of Applied Toxicology 35(10):1114-21.
Bartlett JA, Brewster M, Brown P, Cabral-Lilly D, Cruz CN, David R, Eickhoff WM, Haubenreisser S, Jacobs A, Malinoski F, Morefield E, Nalubola R, Prud’homme R, Sadrieh N, Sayes CM, Shahbazian H, Subbarao N, Tamarkin L, Tyner K, Uppoor R, Whittaker-Caulk M, Zamboni W. (2015). “Summary report of PQRI Workshop on Nanomaterial Drug Products: Current Experience and Management of Potential Risks”. The AAPS Journal. 17(1):44-64.
Powers CM, Grieger KD, Beaudrie C, Hendren CO, Davis JM, Wang A, Sayes CM, MacDonnell M, Gift JS. (2015). “Data dialogues: critical connections for designing and implementing future nanomaterial research”. Environment Systems and Decisions 35(1):76.
Sayes CM, Staats H, Hickey AJ. (2014). “Scale of Health: Indices of Safety and Efficacy in the Evolving Environment of Large Biological Datasets”. Pharmaceutical Research. 31(9):2256-65.
Sooresh A, Pine M, Sayes CM. (2014). “Effects of a novel pesticide-particle conjugate on viability and reactive oxygen species generation in neuronal (PC12) cells”. Drug & Chemical Toxicology. 14:1-7.
Taiyeb AM, Ridha MT, Sayes CM, Dees WL, Kraemer DC. (2014). “Cilostazol administered to female mice induces ovulation of immature oocytes: A contraceptive animal model”. Life Sciences 96 (1-2):46-52.
Durham PG, Delgado-Hernandez E, Sayes CM, Hickey AJ. (2013). Evaluation of Intranasal Delivery of a Viable Bacterial Aerosol for Bovine Immunization. Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 26(2):A49.
Grieger KD, Sayes CM, Hendren C, Rothrock GD, Mansfield CA, Jayanty R, Ensor DS. (2013). Multi-stakeholder collaboration is key to solving society's grand challenges: The case of responsible nanomaterial development. EHS Today. Dec 6.
Sayes CM. (2014). “The relationships among structure, activity, and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles”, KONA Powder and Particle Journal 31:10.
Sayes CM and Rothrock GD. (2013). “Life Cycle Considerations for Engineered Nanomaterials: A Case Study for Nano-Enabled Coating on Drywall.” NSTI-Nanotech 3:742, ISBN 978-1-4822-0586.
Romoser AA, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM. (2014). “Engineered nanoparticles induce DNA damage in primary human skin cells, even at low doses”, Nano LIFE 4(1):1-13.
Taiyeb AM, Dees WL, Ridha-Albarzanchi MT, Sayes CM, Kraemer DC. (2013). “In vitro effects of cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitor, on mouse oocyte maturation and morphology”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 41(2):147-153.
Dellinger A, Zhou Z, Connor J, Madhankumar AB, Pamujula S, Sayes CM, Kepley CL. (2013). “Application of fullerenes in nanomedicine: an update”, Nanomedicine 8(7):1191–1208.
Sayes CM, Smith PA, Ivanov IV. (2013). "A Framework for Grouping Nanoparticles Based on Their Measurable Characteristics", International Journal of Nanomedicine 2013(8):1–12.
Albarzanchi AMT, Sayes CM, Fajt V, Dees WL, Kraemer DC. (2013). “Cilostazol blocks pregnancy in naturally cycling mice”. Contraception 87(4):443-8.
Berg JM, Romoser AA, Figueroa DE, West CS, and Sayes CM. (2013). “Comparative cytological responses of lung epithelial and pleural mesothelial cells following in vitro exposure to nanoscale SiO2.” Toxicology In Vitro, 27(1):24-33.
Sayes CM and Ivanov IV. (2012). "Grouping of Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles Based on Their Measurable Characteristics: A Proposed Framework", Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Nanoinformatics for Biomedicine, in conjunction with IEEE BIBM '12, Philadelphia, PA, October 2012.
Sooresh A, Zeng Z, Chandrasekharan J, Pillai SD, and Sayes CM. (2012). A Physiologically Relevant Approach to Characterize the Microbial Response to Colloidal Particles in Food Matrices within a Simulated Gastrointestinal Tract. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50:2971-2977.
Romoser AA, Figueroa DE, Sooresh A, Chen PL, Scribner K, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM. (2012). “Distinct immunomodulatory effects of a panel of nanomaterials in human dermal fibroblasts.” Toxicology Letters, 210: 293–301.
Hicks JB, McCarthy SA, Mezei G, and Sayes CM. (2011). “PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 56(2):182-193.
Sooresh A, Kwon HS, Taylor R, Pietrantonio P, Pine M, Sayes CM. (2011) “Surface functionalization of silver nanoparticles for novel pesticide delivery.” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3: 3779–3787.
Romoser AA, Ritter D, Majitha R, Meissner K, McShane M, Sayes CM. (2011) "Mitigation of Quantum Dot Cytotoxicity by Microencapsulation." PLoS ONE, 6(7):e22079.
Romoser AA, Chen PL, Berg JM, Seabury C, Ivanov I, Criscitiello MF, Sayes CM. (2011) “Quantum dots trigger modulation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in human skin cells”. Molecular Immunology, 48:1349– 1359.
Sayes CM, Reed KL, Warheit DB. (2011). “Nanoparticle toxicology: measurements of pulmonary hazard effects following exposures to nanoparticles.” Biomedical Nanotechnology 726:313-24.
Berg JM, Ho S, Hwang W, Zebda R, Cummins K, Soriaga M, Taylor R, Guo B, Sayes CM. (2010) “Internalization of Carbon Black and Maghemite Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Mixtures Leads to Oxidant Production”. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 23(12):1874–1882.
Sayes CM and Ivanov I; (2010) “Comparative Study of Predictive Computational Models for Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity”. Risk Analysis, 30(11):1723.
Warheit DB, Sayes CM, Frame SR, Reed KL; (2010) “Pulmonary exposures to Sepiolite nanoclay particulates in rats: Resolution following multinucelate giant cell formation and lack of extrapulmonary systemic effects”. Toxicology Letters, 192: 286–293.
Sayes CM, Reed KL, Glover KP, Swain KA, Ostraat ML, Donner EA, Warheit DB; (2009) “Changing the dose metric for inhalation toxicity studies: Short-term study in rats with engineered aerosolized amorphous silica nanoparticles.” Inhalation Toxicology, 22(4): 348–354.
Sayes CM and Warheit DB; (2009) “Characterization of nanomaterials for toxicity assessment”. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 1(6):660-670.
Berg JM, Romoser A, Banerjee N, Zebda R, Sayes CM; (2009) “The relationship between pH and Zeta potential of ~30 nm metal oxide nanoparticle suspensions relevant to in vitro toxicological evaluations”. Nanotoxicology, 3(4): 276–283.
Warheit DB, Sayes CM, Reed KL; (2009) "Nanoscale and fine zinc oxide particles: Can in vitro assays accurately forecast lung hazards following inhalation exposures?" Environmental Science & Technology, 43(20):7939-7945.
Warheit DB, Reed KL, and Sayes CM; (2009) “A role for surface reactivity in TiO2 and quartz-related nanoparticle pulmonary toxicity”. Nanotoxicology 3(03):181-187.
Warheit DB, Reed KL, Sayes CM. (2009). “A role for nanoparticle surface reactivity in facilitating pulmonary toxicity and development of a base set of hazard assays as a component of nanoparticle risk management.” Inhal Toxicol. 21 Suppl 1:61-7.
Guo B, Zebda R, Drake SJ, Sayes CM; (2009) “Synergistic effect of co-exposure to carbon black and Fe2O3 nanoparticles on oxidative stress in cultured lung epithelial cells”. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 6:4.
Sayes CM and De La Rosa V. (2009). “Nano Health Expert Review: Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells”. InterNano: Resources for Nanomanufacturing. DOI: 10.4053/er196-090428.
Warheit DB, Sayes CM, Reed KL, Swain KA; (2008) “Health effects related to nanoparticle exposures: Environmental, health and safety considerations for assessing hazards and risks”. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 120:35-42.
Sayes CM, Reed KL, Abrams L, Subramoney S, Warheit DB; (2008) “Validating in vitro nanoparticle toxicity measurements”. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11:421-431.
Sayes CM, Marchione A, Reed KL, Warheit DB; (2007) “Comparative pulmonary toxicity assessments of C60 water suspensions in rats: Few differences in fullerene toxicity in vivo in contrast to in vitro profiles”. Nano Letters 7(8):2399-2406.
Sayes CM and Warheit DB; (2008) “An in vitro investigation of the differential cytotoxic responses of human and rat lung epithelial cell lines using TiO2 nanoparticles”. International Journal of Nanotechnology 5(1):15-29.
Yu WW, Chang E, Falkner JC, Zhang J, Al-Somali AM, Sayes CM, Johns J, Drezek R, Colvin V; (2007) “Forming biocompatible and nonaggregated nanocrystals in water using amphiphilic polymers”. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129(10):2871-9.
Warheit DB, Hoke R, Finlay C, Donner M, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Development of a base set of toxicity tests as a component of a nanoparticle risk management framework”. Toxicology Letters 171:99–110.
Sayes CM, Reed KL, Warheit DB; (2007) “Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: Comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles”. Toxicological Sciences 97(1):163–180.
Warheit DB, Webb TR, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with three forms of ultrafine-TiO2 particles: Evidence for differential responses”. Toxicology 230:90-104.
Warheit DB, Webb TR, Colvin VL, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Pulmonary bioassay studies with nanoscale and fine-quartz particles in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size but on surface characteristics”. Toxicological Sciences 95(1):270–280.
Yu WW, Chang E, Sayes CM, Drezek R, Colvin VL; (2006) “Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer”. Nanotechnology 17(17):4483-4487.
Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian P, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, Warheit DB, Colvin VL; (2006) “Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: A cytotoxic and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells”. Toxicological Sciences 92(1):174-185.
Warheit DB, Webb TR, Sayes CM, Colvin VL, Reed KL; (2006) “Pulmonary instillation studies with nanoscale TiO2 rods and dots in rats: Toxicity is not dependent upon particle size and surface area”. Toxicological Sciences 91(1):227-236.
Sayes CM, Liang F, Hudson JL, Mendez J, Guo WH, Beach JM, Moore VC, Doyle CD, West JL, Billups WE, Ausman KD, Colvin VL; (2006) “Functionalization density dependence of SWNT cytotoxicity in vitro”. Toxicology Letters 161(2):135-142.
Warheit DB and Sayes CM; “Assessing health effects of inhaled nanomaterials”. Gradient Corporation, EH&S Nano News 1(7): 3-4, (2006).
Lyon DY, Fortner JD, Sayes CM, Colvin VL, Hughes JB; (2005) “Bacterial cell association and antimicrobial activity of a C60 water suspension”. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(11):2757-2762.
Sayes CM, Gobin AM, Mendez J, West JL, Colvin VL; (2005) “Nano-C60 cytotoxicity is due to lipid peroxidation”. Biomaterials 27(5):7587-7595.
Chen M, Falkner J, Guo WH, Zhang JY, Sayes CM, Colvin VL; “Synthesis and self-organization of soluble monodisperse palladium nanoclusters”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 287(1): 146-151 (2005).
Fortner JD, Lyon D, Sayes CM, Guo WH, Tao YJ, Ausman KD, Hughes JB, Colvin VL; (2005) “C60 in water: nanocrystal formation and microbial response”. Environmental Science and Technology 39(11):4307.
Sayes CM, Fortner JD, Guo W, Lyon DY, Boyd AM, Ausman KD, Tao YJ, Sitharaman B, Wilson LJ, Hughes JB, West JL, Colvin VL; (2004) “The differential cytotoxicity of water-soluble fullerenes”. Nano Letters 4(10):1881.
Hammer RP, Owens CV, Hwang SH, Sayes CM, Soper SA; (2002) “Asymmetrical, water-soluble phthalocyanine dyes for covalent labeling of oligonucleotides”. Bioconjugate Chemistry 13(6):1244-1252.
Boyd JE, Briskman A, Sayes CM, Mittleman D, Colvin V; (2002) “Terahertz vibrational modes of inverse micelles”. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 106(24):6346-6353.
Billodeaux DR, Owens CV, Sayes CM, Soper SA, Fronczek FR; (1999) “Pseudosymmetry with Z '=4 in 1,3-propanesultone at 100 K”. Acta Crystallographica Section C - Crystal Structure Communications 55:2126-2129.
Shatkin JA, Ede J, and Sayes CM. (2016). “Categorizing Nanomaterials for Health and Environmental Risk Assessment”. Physicochemical Properties of Nanomaterials. Ed. R. Pleus and V. Murashov.
Sayes CM and Aquino GV. (2017). "Nano‐Exposure Science: How Does Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials Happen?" Metrology and Standardization of Nanotechnology: Protocols and Industrial Innovations 343-362. Ed. E. Mansfield, D. Kaiser, D. Fujita, M. Van de Voorde.
Sayes CM. (2016). “Certification: Validating Workers’ Competence of Nano-Safety” in NANO-SAFETY: What We Need to Know to Protect Workers. Ed. D.E. Fazarro, W. Trybula, J. Tate, C. Hanks. With contrib. by R. Asmatulu, B. Foster, C. Geraci, A. Maynard, and C.M. Sayes.
Sayes CM and Aquino GV. (2016). “Behavior-Based Worker Safety for Engineered Nanomaterials” in NANO-SAFETY: What We Need to Know to Protect Workers. Ed. D.E. Fazarro, W. Trybula, J. Tate, C. Hanks. With contrib. by R. Asmatulu, B. Foster, C. Geraci, A. Maynard, and C.M. Sayes.
Warheit DB and Sayes CM. (2014). “Routes of exposure to nanoparticles: Hazard Tests related to Portal Entries”. Nano Engineering: Global Approaches to Health and Safety Issues. Ed: Patricia Dolez, Elsevier, Inc. Waltham, MA.
Sayes CM and Child JR. (2014). “Nanotoxicology: determining nano-bio-interactions and evaluating toxicity”. Nano Engineering: Global Approaches to Health and Safety Issues. Ed: Patricia Dolez, Elsevier, Inc. Waltham , MA.
Sayes CM; (2014) “Life Cycle Considerations for Nano-enabled Pharmaceuticals”; Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology; Eds. Sahu and Casciano, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sayes CM and Santamaria A; (2014) “Toxicological issues to consider when evaluating the safety of consumer products containing nanomaterials”; Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety: Risks, Regulation and Management (2nd edition); Eds. Hull and Bowman.
Warheit DB and Sayes CM. (2012). “Nanomaterial Characterization for Toxicity Testing: Tools from Nanotoxicology useful for Nanobiomedicinal Research”. Safety of Nanomedicines. Ed. Bengt Fadeel, Panstandford Press.
Hickey AJ, Staats H, Roy CJ, Powell KG, Sullivan V, Rothrock G, Sayes CM. (2012). “Nasal Dry Powder Vaccine Delivery Technology”. Molecular Vaccines - from Prophylaxis to Therapy. Ed. Matthias Giese, Springer Vienna/ New York.
Philbert M and Sayes CM; (2010) “Nanotoxicology”. Comprehensive Toxicology 2nd Edition, Volume 2: Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, ed. Kenneth Ramos, Elsevier.
Sayes CM and Berg JM; (2009) “Biocompatibility of nanomaterials: physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials relevant to toxicological studies, in vitro and in vivo.” CRC: Nanobiomaterials Handbook. Ed: Balaji Sitharaman, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
Sayes CM, Romoser A, Banerjee N; (2009) “The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nanotoxicology”. Systems Biology. Ed. Saura C. Sahu, Johns Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Sayes CM and Warheit DB; (2008) “Criteria and Implementation of Physicochemical Characteristics of Nanomaterials for health effects and ecotoxicity studies”; Nanotoxicity: From In Vitro and In Vivo Models to Health Risks. Ed. Saura C. Sahu, Johns Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Warheit DB, Reed KL, and Sayes CM; (2008) “Predictive Value of in vitro nanotoxicity studies for assessing in vivo effects: Assessing the various routes of exposure”; Nanotoxicity: From In Vitro and In Vivo Models to Health Risks. Ed. Saura C. Sahu, Johns Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Warheit DB, Reed KL, Sayes CM; (2007) “Models for testing the pulmonary toxicity of particles: Lung bioassay screening studies in male rats with a new formulation of TiO2 particulates”; Particle Toxicology; Eds. Donaldson & Borm, CRC Press, Taylor and Francis.
Santamaria A and Sayes CM; (2007) “Toxicological studies with nanoscale materials”; The Risk Governance of Nanotechnology; Ed. Steffie Friedrichs, William Andrew, Inc.